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Full text of "Alaskan glacier studies of the National Geographic Society in the Yakutat Bay, Prince William Sound and lower Copper River regions"

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GLACIERS OF ALASKA                                          7
In this region the Takhin and Le Blondeau Glaciers are of especial interest because they seem to have blocked the Takhin valley, about 25 miles west of Haines Mission, diverting the upper ten miles of this stream northeastward into Salmon River or Tsirku Creek which flows into Chilkat River at Klukwan.1 Rainy Hollow Glacier had an advance of over 2000 feet between June and September, 1910, as observed by Webster Brown.2
Davidson Glacier which has been described by Davidson, Blake, Muir, Meehan, Russell, Gilbert, and others 8 seems to have been one of the first bulb glaciers recognized in Alaska, Russell having described and explained its fan-shaped terminus.
Glaciers of Glacier Bay. These, the most visited glaciers in Alaska, include the Muir, Carroll, and Rendu ice tongues that flow south or west from the portion of the St. Elias Range just described, the Wood, Geikie, Charpentier, Hugh Miller, and Johns Hopkins Glaciers that flow eastward from the Fairweather Range, and the Grand Pacific Glacier which flows southward between these two divisions of the St. Elias Range, heading as a through glacier, as does the northern part of the Muir, on a flat divide that sends an ice tongue northward to the Alsek River. There are eleven tidal glaciers here, of which Muir Glacier alone has a drainage area of over 800 square miles and over 350 square miles of glacier surface. Its two main tributaries are 20 and 22 miles long.
Glacier Bay was visited by Vancouver in 1794 and later by several of the Russian explorers. The modern visits begin with those of Lieutenant Wood in 1877 * and John Muir in 1879 and 1880.6 Glacier Bay was discovered in the sense of being made known to the world6 by John Muir, whose name is fittingly attached to the grandest of its glaciers. After Muir's visits, Muir Glacier was first studied scientifically by G. W. Lam-plugh in 1884 7 and by G. F. Wright in 1886.8 All the ice tongues were studied and mapped carefully by H. F. Reid in 1890 and 1892,B H. P. Gushing sharing the observations of Muir Glacier in 1890.10 I. C. Russell also made brief observations of Muir Glacier in 1890.u The region was remapped by the Canadian Boundary Survey in 1895,12 and revisited by Muir in 1896.18
' See PI. XXXVH, Bull. 287, U. 8. Geol. Survey.
Journ. Geol., Vol. XXI, 1918, p. 426.
> Davidson, George, House Extra Doc. 177, 40th Congress, 2d session, 1868, p. 276; Glaciers of Alaska, etc., Trans, and Proc. Geog. Soc. Pacific, Vol. HI, 1904, pp. 79-76.
Blake, T. A., House Ex. Doc., 40th Congress, 2d Session, 1868, p. 321.
Muir, John, Amer. Geol., Vol. XI, 1893, p. 293.
Meehan, Thomas, Notes on Glaciers in Alaska, Proc. Philadelphia Acad. Science, 1883, pp. 249-255.
Russell, I. C,, Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., Vol. 1,1890, p. 152.
Gilbert, G. K, Harriman Alaska Expedition, Vol. HI, 1904, pp. 12-16.
 Wood, C. E. S., Century, Vol. H, 1882, pp. 833-335.
Muir, John, Amer. Geol., VoL XL 1893, pp. 284-299; Century, Vol. XXVUI, 1895, pp. 234-247; Harriman Alaska Expedition, Vol. 1, 1902, pp. 125-128.
 Scidmore, E. R., The Discovery of Glacier Bay, Alaska, Nat. Geog. Mag., Vol. VH, 1896, pp. 140-146. ' Nature, Vol. 33,1886, pp. 299-301.
 Wright, G. F., Amer. Journ. Sci., Vol. XXXm, 1887, pp. 1-18; Ice Age in North America, 1891, pp. 36-66; Man and the Glacial Period, 1892, pp. 24-30.
 Reid, H. F., Studies of Muir Glacier, Alaska, Nat. Geog. Mag., Vol. IV, 1892, pp. 19-84; Glacier Bay and Its Glaciers, 16th Ann. Rept., U. S. Geol, Survey, Part I, 1896, pp. 421-461.
" Amer. Geol., Vol. VEH, 1891, pp. 207-230.
" Amer. Geol., Vol. IX, 1892, pp. 190-197.
" Atlas of Award, Alaskan Boundary Tribunal, Sheets 14,15, 16,17, 18, 19.
" See H. F. Reid's Variations of Glaciers, Jour. Geol., Vol. V, 1897, p. 381.